Wastes reveals the need for an integrated approach.

Wastes that do
not fall into the concept of hazardous and harmful waste from public places
such as houses, gardens, parks and picnic areas, which do not form waste with
industrial contents, are generally referred to as domestic waste. Daily routine
activities are classified into hazardous and harmful waste class which can
occur in the aftermath house environment. The amount of waste per capita in our
country is 0.6 kg per day, and 1 kg of domestic solid waste is produced on
average. According to this, it is estimated that about 27,000 tons of domestic
solid waste per year is produced between 55,000 to 60,000 tons per day on
average. Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI) in Turkey in 2008, according to
data collected from the municipal waste collection and transport about 25
million tons of waste;

·        
41.3%
were in the municipal waste,

·        
9.3%
were in the metropolitan municipality garbage,

·        
1.4%
in other municipal garbage,

·        
1%
was burned openly,

·        
0.4%
were buried,

·        
0.2%
was poured by duck and lake,

·        
44.9%
of them are in regular storage areas,

·        
1,1%
were taken to composting plants and processed in appropriate processes.

Municipal wastes are generally classified as
non-hazardous and consist of wastes originating from houses or content or
structurally similar.Economic growth in the industrial area in Turkey;
urbanization, population growth, waste types, need mass both volume instead of
establishing a separate waste management system for each type of waste
resulting increase in the value of all the waste into space reveals the need
for an integrated approach. According to the results of the study on the
determination of the domestic waste content in the scope of the Solid Waste
Master Plan Project (KAAP) carried out in 2006, 34% of the domestic wastes are
organic wastes from the kitchen, about 22% are non-combustible materials, 19%
while the remaining 25% constitutes packaging waste. These results also show
the contribution that municipal wastes will provide to the economy of the
country as a result of decomposing and recycling or returning before domestic
waste is sent to collection centers.

2.1

Household wastes have various damages to economic,
environmental and human health.Non-removable and
non-stored wastes cause environmental pollution to a considerable extent,
affecting public health in a negative way. After the rains, the
waters leaking from the garbage fields cause the groundwater to pollute.
There
are odor problems in garbage poured areas. In case of throwing the
waste pills into trash, soil, seas, rivers and sewers, or burning them, the
heavy metals they contain may pollute the environment.Waste oils; reduces
oxygen in water. Microorganisms that are fed with waste oil in water are
formed, and these microorganisms reach carcinogenic people through eating fish
and other living things. Frying oils; when it is poured into the
sea, lakes and rivers, it prevents the oxygen transfer from air to water by
covering the surface of the water, causing the death of fishes and other living
things. When the frying oil is poured into the sink, it adheres to the drain
system, causing the wastes in the sewage pipe to stick to the pipe wall,
causing the pipe to become narrowed and the sewer system to become unusable
over time. Used frying oils cause pollution of groundwater, which is an
important source of drinking water. Finished Tires;
mosquitoes and rats, as well as the spread of epidemic diseases. These masses
cause fires that can not be extinguished for days. These fires spread tons of
toxic gases such as DIOXIN-FURAN in a black cloud in the atmosphere. These
atmospheric pollutants cause direct pollution of human health as well as
contamination of nearby land and water. In developing
societies, there is a right ratio between consumption habits of people and the
quantity and composition of consumer goods solid wastes. Particularly in recent
years, with the incidents of migration from the villages to the cities, the
production in our country has decreased and the consumer society has begun to
become. In
recent years, together with the developing packaging industry, the production
of materials which enables the purchase of products in very small quantities
and which will ensure the long-term storage of the received products has begun.
As a result of the good disposal of these packages, environmental pollution
occurs, which in turn has an effect on the minus both biologically and
economically. A paper handkerchief that has been left to the nature can be
destroyed in 3 months, an apple garbage in 6 months, a glass bottle in 4000
years. For
this reason, the recovery of these packages is very important. Because of the
recycling of these wastes, natural resources are protected and at the same time
energy saving is provided. However, the amount of waste in the environment
starts to decrease and it means investment for the future and economically.

3.1

Recycling is the
recycling of wastes that can be reevaluated through various physical and
chemical processes to be converted into secondary raw material and included in
the production process. It can be defined as recycling waste materials that are
not used in any way by another definition, and recycling them as raw materials
through various recycling methods. The purpose of recycling; to prevent the
unnecessary use of resources and to reduce the amount of waste garbage together
with the separation of waste at the source. Recycling and reuse of materials
such as iron, steel, copper, lead, paper, plastic, rubber, glass, electronic
waste will prevent the depletion of natural resources. This situation; it will
also reduce the amount of foreign exchange paid to imported scrap material to
meet the needs of countries, and will save a great deal of the energy used. For
example, the use of recycled paper in paper manufacture can be avoided by
reducing air pollution by 74-94%, water pollution by 35%, water use by 45%, and
the addition of one ton of waste paper to paper pulp. Energy saving is
achieved because the number of industrial processes in recycled material
decreases. In the recycling of metal beverage boxes, the metal is directly
melted and converted into a new product. In this way, neither the mineral ore
used for production nor the processes applied for the purification of the mine
are required. In this way an energy saving of 96% can be achieved by recycling
an aluminum can. Similarly, the energy required to recycle the paper separated
in solid wastes is up to 50% of that required for normal operations. In the
same way, glass and plastic waste can be recycled in a considerable amount of
energy saving. Recycling
is a productive economic investment in the long run. Reductions in crude oil
and rapid depletion of natural resources can lead to economic problems, and at
this point recycling will be positive on the economy. It will provide new
business opportunities and provide future generations with access to natural
resources. On
the other hand, as mentioned above, it will also be possible to significantly
reduce environmental pollution by reducing the amount of solid wastes to be
disposed of for recycling purposes. The reduction of the amount of solid waste
and volume is a great advantage especially for countries where there is not
enough space to regularly dispose of solid waste. When these
recyclable wastes are mixed with normal garbage, the secondary materials
produced from these materials are of much lower quality and may cause problems
in the cleaning process. Therefore, the most important step of the recycling
process is the separation at the source and the separate collection.