UNIVERSITY Strategy and Structure LECTURER: Dr. Eketu Abstract

UNIVERSITY OF
PORT HARCOURT

SCHOOL OF
GRADUATE STUDIES

FACULTY OF
MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENT OF
MANAGEMENT

 

ASSIGNMENT ON:

Managing change resistance in strategy
implementation

 

      NAME: KANU PRECIOUS .C.

NO.:
G2016/MSC/MGT/FT/002

COURSE:
Strategy and Structure

LECTURER: Dr.
Eketu

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This study looks into change resistance, concentrating on the management of
change resistance in strategy implementation. It offers an in?depth education of resistance to change. Through a more examined
technique, this research looks into approaches in managing resistance to change
and connecting resistance to the advantage of the organization. This paper via
empirical research displays systematically the consequence of change resistance
in strategy execution and how managers can use and work through change
resistance. It also expresses which resistance vary most, range of change and contributing
clues around where establishments ought to pay distinctive consideration when introducing
a change procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

After strategies have
been agreed on, the following process is the implementation of the agreed
strategy. Strategy implementation is an essential and vital portion of an
organization. It is the procedure of apportioning
resources to support the approved and preferred approaches. This process
includes the diverse management activities that are indispensable in putting
strategy in motion, begin certain tactical controls that supervise growth, and ultimately
achieve organizational goals. While execution of strategies are necessary in an
organization, resistance to change of such strategies is unavoidable. There is certain
to be a reaction to the execution of said strategies. The goal of this paper is
to illustrate how a good and pleasing management of change resistance would reassure
and rise quality and growth in strategy Implementation.

 

Literature
Review

(Lawrence, 1954; Maurer,
1996; Strebel, 1994; Waddell and Sohal, 1998, among others) emphasize that the
basis for the lack of success of many change initiatives can be found in
resistance to change. (Beer and Eisenstat, 1996; Goldstein, 1988; Lawrence,
1954; Piderit, 2000; Waddell and Sohal, 1998) looks at Resistance as a source
of information, being useful in learning how to develop a more successful
change process.

The general aim of
organizational change is an adaptation to the environment (Barr, Stimpert and
Huff, 1992; Child and Smith, 1987; Leana and Barry, 2000) or an development in
performance (Boeker, 1997; Keck and Tushman, 1993).

Type
of changes

The first type of changes
are small changes that modify certain minor parts, looking for an enhancement
in the current situation, but keeping the general working structure (Blumenthal
and Haspeslagh, 1994; Goodstein and Burke, 1991; Greiner, 1972; Levy, 1986;
Mezias and Glynn, 1993; Nadler and Tushman, 1989; 1990). The second type of
changes are strategic, transformational, and innovatory or second order ones.
They are radical conversions, where the organization totally changes its necessary
structure (Blumenthal and Haspeslagh, 1994; Ghoshal and Bartlett, 1996;
Goodstein and Burke, 1991; Marshak, 1993; Nadler and Tushman, 1989, 1990),
looking largely for a new competitive benefit (Hutt, Walker and Frankwick, 1995)
and affecting the basic competences of the organization (Ruiz and Lorenzo,
1999).

 

Conceptual
Review

Dependent variable:
Change
resistance

Independent
variable:
Strategy  Implementation

Empirical
Review

Behavior

Behavioral approach concentrates
on individual attitudes in clarifying the nature of change. This approach
conceives the change in organizations as highly dependent on members of
organizations and their behaviors. As we will discuss in details in the
following part, behavioral approach focuses on change in the basis of
individual behaviors and their effects on other individuals’ behaviors in order
to reach intended results. The failure or success of reaching intended results
should be analyzed in the behaviors of individuals and the conditions (Cameron
& Green, 2004). The nature of change in the organizations can be understood
by analyzing the behaviors of people and their effects. According to behavioral
approach, by creating suitable environment and functional intervention
strategies; change can be managed and organizational development might be
achieved. The main concern of change agent should be behaviors, perceptions and
attitudes of people in the process of change implementation and managers should
concentrate on improving communication, group behaviors, organizational
culture, organizational learning and motivation in workplace in order to
achieve intended results and successful changes (Christensen, Marx &
Stevenson, 2006).

CHANGE PROCESS

(
Newstrom & Davis, 1997)

Diagnosis
of drivers of change and resistance to change: Diagnosis, which
is the first step of change process, helps us to understand external and
internal drivers which force organizations to change. Possible resistance
sources should also be taken into consideration while diagnosing.

Selecting
change agents: In accordance with the type of change that has been
necessary,

appropriate change agents
should be selected in order to implement change programs. Change agents can be
internal, who are members of the organization; or external, who can be hired
asconsultants. At the same time, change agents should also be compatible to
manage resistance.

Strategy
building: In this step, by considering the needs for change, a
proper plan for change, which will transform organization from its existing
situation to a desired position, is expected to be developed

Strategy
implementation: Implementation of change strategies
necessitates managerial and leadership skills. Time, cost, responsibility and
ethical issues should be taken into consideration while implementing change programs.

Evaluation:
Overall progress and effectiveness of implementation should be evaluated in
order to determine success of change in reaching targeted goals. The important
point is not to ignore that change is an ongoing process in the shape of a circle;
and therefore strategies should be adaptable enough to upcoming change forces
and resistance factors that might arise from employees.

Institutionalize
Change:
The change process and management are expected to be transferred to the
long-term improvements by developing and introducing functional mechanisms like
learning organizations. The important point that should be mentioned here is
that change is the ongoing process, which is not directional. The process
should be thought as a circular that the outputs of processes can be the inputs
or sources of change processes. In other words, the process can be considered
as a flow action in which every step is supported by the previous one.

 

Structure

The other view has come
from the structural approach and it has described the nature of change as
structure? and focuses on redesigning and restructuring organizations.
Consultants or change agents should provide functioning mechanisms (structure)
to managers in order to achieve successful change and decrease the anxiety in
organization (Hirschhorn & Barnett 1993). Structures have been emerged from
the interactions of groups of people that work and aim to the common purposes
(Seel, 2002). It is also possible that structures can be created from outside
by experts, namely external consultants.

Level of Change

As human beings, we have
lived in social organism where we have confronted to the different level of
change in everyday life. Individuals could be assumed as the core part of
change; that is, change in individual is the starting point of the change of all
systems. But individuals are not isolated from the environment. They are also
part of different groups at different levels. There have been intense webs of
communications between individuals and groups. (Cameron & Green, 2004).
Therefore, in this part, we will analyze three different levels of change,
which will give us a comprehensive understanding about how change should be
managed:

Individual
level of change

Team
level of change

Organizational
level of change

 

Emphasis is being put on
the level analysis compared to the other dimensions of change, because it
contains important elements which will prepare the ground for the discussion of
resistance management. We believe that for successful change implementation and
resistance management, key elements of these three levels needs to be
understood by manager/change initiators.

 

Individual Change

Even change has been
coming from the external world, the perception and reactions toward change
arises internally, and therefore this puts to individual to a central position
in explaining the level of change. The external world, which individual are a
part of it, has not been stable. It has been dynamic and subject to constant
changes. The individuals, as a part of the environment, also encounter these
changes and need to adopt themselves. From this point, individuals constitute
the one of the most important levels which the idea if change needs to be
analyzed and understood. We will revisit for different perspectives offered by
Cameron and Green (2004) to explain individual level change.

 

Behavioral
approach

Cognitive
Approach

Psychodynamic
Approach

Humanistic
Psychological Approach

 

These four approaches are
not contradictory to each other; instead, they function as complementary for
each other, in terms of explaining the different dimensions of individual level
change.

 

 

Behavioral Approach:

Behavioral approach
focuses on change by looking at individual behaviors when they are striving to
reach their goals and their effects on other individuals’ behaviors. The
failure or success of reaching intended results can be analyzed in the
behaviors of individuals and the conditions that shape them (Cameron and Green,
2004). This issue has been initially discussed by psychologist like Pavlov
(1928) and Skinner (1953) in order to understand the relation between behaviors
and conditions and the effects of rewards and punishment systems to the
behaviors of individuals. Pavlov (1928) mainly analyzed the behavior itself
under classical conditioning; however Skinner (1953) has furthered the issue to
analyze the possible effects of the behaviors. He proposed that there could be
also the learning behavior with the positive and negative effects of rewards
and punishments. According to him, there are four possible situations that
might arise after using rewards and punishment systems