Sugarcane the Andropogoneae tribe; with maize and sorghum,

Sugarcane
is the member of grass family, Poaceae,
belonging to the genus Saccharum,
classified under the Andropogoneae tribe; with maize and sorghum, as the
closest relatives (Plomion et al., 2011). The
plant of sugarcane is the most important source for the production of about 80%
sugar needed by the world. This study objective is to extraction and
identification of DNA from sugarcane. And characterize the NHX gene and also
find out the effect of Na+/K+, Na+/H+
antiporters after encoding by the NHX gene under saline conditions.
Furthermore, different bioinformatics tools will be used to characterize the
NHX gene.

Approximately
70% crop productivity can be decreased every by abiotic stresses (Acquaah 2007).
Plants response towards these stresses is complicated and changes involves at
molecular levels by using different molecular techniques at proteomics,
transcriptomics, at physiological and cellular levels. It is synchronized
action of genes against stress tolerance, one of the gene can triggered
components of different pathways (tuteja, 2007). Salinity stress is one the
basic and major stress among all the abiotic stresses. Growth and production of
many crops can be affected by salinity stress in over the world (Geo et al., 2007). More than 800 million
hectares of land was affected worldly by salinity stress (FAO 2008,
http:www.fao.org/ag/agl/agl/spush/). Different mineral nutrients required for
the growth of plants, but Na+  isn’t considered as essential mineral
nutrient, moreover, excess of Na+ adversely affect the growth of
plants and can cause the lost of yield and also delay the flowering of plant
(Gill 1979, Hasegawa et al., 2000,
Zhu 2001, chinnusamy et al., 2006). Mostly
salin soils are rich in Na+ which distrupts the absorption of K+
and other minerals (Zhu 2001). Brazil is at first number in the production
of sugarcane with the yearly production of 739,300 TMT.

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Like other crops sugarcane is also a major crop and it
is also a source of income for most of peoples about 9 million Pakistanis. Pakistan’s
government has already taken many steps with the passage of time to improve the
country’s general production. These steps have improved the overall sugarcane
production therefore our country is growing up to of 63 to 64 thousand metric
tons of the goods. This step made the Pakistan a well reputed country and gave
the 5th position in world as sugarcane producer. So, now Pakistan is
exporting sugar to the next-door countries as Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and other Asian countries.

A-biotic stress:

                        
Sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrids) is a lengthy or time
taking and required excess of water for this cash crop to cultivate under
varied agro-ecological environment. Moreover experiencing different weather
environment all the year round, alteration in climate, the range of the day,
further ecological condition cause the development of sugarcane by distressing
the abiotic stresses, growth of sugarcane, sugar production, its growth and
revitalization, ratooning capability and accessibility of sugarcane seed for
successive planting. The comparatively more litheness of sugarcane towards
abiotic stresses appears due to some native changing as a good array of
compensatory potential, C4 photosynthesis, require privileged
temperature for the majority of the physiological behavior (but for sugar
increase). Besides, a number of the genetic or physiological interventions as
providing the drought hardiness, helping of roots to penetrate deeply in soil,
heat load can be condensed by litter mulching, increasing the age of the crop
at the beginning of dearth/floods, by amendmenet of organic matter in soil,
improvement in nutrients and managing the rhizospheric
salinity/alkalinity, etc., also improve to stress tolerance in sugarcane. Moreover,
there are number of genes, miRNAs
techniques and different molecular markers are associated to control these stress
responses which contribute to buoyancy of sugarcane towards abiotic stresses.
Such efforts will lead to development of a stress resistance variety of
sugarcane utilizing NHX gene, imparting salt tolerance
esapcially Na+/K+, for commercial cultivation.

 Seed performance can
be improved by seed priming a well known pre-germination strategy. However,
biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated stress
tolerance are little understood. Here, I’ll report results of the study on
growth, physiological characteristics, the growth pattern and expression of
stress reactive genes in salt primed. The antioxidant capacity, osmolytic
improvement and unpredictable growth were exposed between the primed and
non-primed plants. The prepared plants showed better forbearance towards the
salt or PEG stress, as showed by better development and lower membrane breakage,
through better antioxidant capacity as compared to the respective non-primed
controls. Further, steady state transcript expression analysis revealed up regulation
of sodium-proton-antiporter (NHX),
while down-regulation of sucrosetransporter (SUT1), delta1-pyrolline-5-carboxylate-synthetase (P5CS) and proline-dehydrogenase (PDH) in primed plants on exposure to the
stress as compared to the non-primed plants. By altering gene expression the
results showed that primed mediated salts and PEG stress tolerance have improved
the antioxidant capacity in sugarcane.