Name philosophical and mystical flow in his work.

Name                           : 
Nana Noviana

Class                            : 
TBI C/3

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Student number            : 
1608103008

 

Minimal
pair analysis on poetry readings “The Little Black Boy”

Creation:
William Blake

 

I.                  
INTRODUCTION

 

William Blake
was born in London on November 28, 1757. He is a poet, painter and printmaker. When
he was little he was never a formal school but he could read and read it is a
work of literary works . Because his hobbies William Blake can go to school at
the Royal Academy is a famous art school in England. During his life, people
think of him as a madman because of his mystical flow. now William Blake is
considered a historical figure of poetry and visual art from the times of
Romanticism. His poetry containing his prophecies, his visual art according to
his contemporary art critics is “The greatest artist”. Blake is
upheld by critics for his creativity and philosophical and mystical flow in his
work. His paintings and poems have been part of the 18th-century Romanticism
and Pre-Romantics movement. He is died in London on August 12, 1827 at age 69 and
now his work is much admired. William Blake’s poem
entitled “The Little Black Boy”. “The Little Black Boy”  creation by William Blake tells of a boy who
is discovering his true self and loving his mother in the search for God during
his lifetime. He interpreted his identity as a black man. In the cultural
environment, black people feel always treated unfairly by the white people,
causing injustice in life.

Phonology is a
linguistic field that analyzes different pronunciation phenomena by speakers in
an area. in the phonology of language sounds including phonemes and meaning
differences including the minimal pair. Minimal
Pair are two words that are only distinguished by one sound or phoneme and have
different meanings. The minimal pair serves as a human speech
utility to facilitate between the speaker and the listener in determining two
or more contrasting sounds of the phoneme. the phoneme is different meaning.
For example / t / and / l / in english enough with minimal pairs “took” and “look”
his includes phonemes because / t / and / l / diferents meaning (Roach, 1984 p.54 ).
According to theory, minimal pairs 
has three types like initial word, middle word and final word. initial
word examples : phonemes /joy/ and /boy/ different meaning /j/ and /b/ ,
middle word examples : phonemes /boy/ and /buy/ different meaning /o/ and /u/ ,
and final word phonemes /poot/ and /poor/ different meaning /t/ and /r/. so, if
we want to prove whether a phoneme sounds a language, first searched the Minimal
pair of two similar forms and distinguish meaning. For example if you want to
know the sound / h / phoneme or not, then we find the minimum pair of words “hear” and “heat”. the word hearing consists of sounds / h /, / e /, /
a /, and / r / whereas the standard word consists of sounds / h /, / e /, / a
/, and / t /. Thus, in the hearing and heat pair there are three equal sounds,
the distinct sound of / r / in the word hear and the / t / sound of the word heat.
also serves some contrasting English phonemic symbols. examples of pool  words and pull  words that distinguish phonemic symbols  / u? / 
and  / ? / and / f / / v / on file
and vile distinguish their meaning at the beginning of a word  (Brown, 1988).
     

Researchers conducted this study to
find out the minimal pair of poetry readings “The Little Black Boy”
seen from the video, the authors do research on this case because the case is
very important to be analyzed instantly. because in the linguistic phenomenon,
when the regional people speak English, something that is said is still
carrying the characteristic dialect dialect. I guess people also do not
understand there is a difference in meaning or not the word he pronounced, do
not understand phonetic symbol on this minimal pair. So the purpose of pair
analysis is minimal to see whether or not there is a phoneme from a word in a poem
and similar to the first word with the next word and whatever place the
artistation on that word. The data from this study used qualitative data found
from the analysis of the poem “The Little Black Boy” and looked for
the minimal pair in the poem.

 

II. DISCUSSION

 

Example of Minimal Pairs
from poetry “THE LITTLE BLACK BOY” :

1.                 
till and will

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

till

will

/t?l/

/w?l/

Ø   
“till” and “will” is minimal pairs,
because only t and w are have different meaning

 

phoneme

consonantal

Sonorant

voiced

Voiceless

alveolar

bilabial

stop

/t/

+

+

+

+

+

/w/

+

+

+

+

 

v   
The result of analyzing the
distinctive features between /t/ and /w/ 
are in voiced,
voiceless, alveolar, bilabial, stop . then the similarity features of
/t/ and /w/ is consonantal and sonorant.

 

2.                 
took and look

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

took

look

/t?k/

/l?k/

Ø   
“took” and “look” is minimal pairs,
because only t and l are have different
meaning

 

Phoneme

consonantal

Sonorant

voiced

voiceless

alveolar

Stop

/t/

+

+

+

+

+

+

/l/

+

+

+

+

 

v   
The result of analyzing the
distinctive features between /t/ and /l/ 
are in voiceless,
stop . then the similarity features of /t/ and /l/ is consonantal,
sonorant, voiced, alveolar.

3.                 
tree and free

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

tree

free

/tri:/

/fri:/

 

Ø   
“tree” and “free” is minimal pairs,
because only t and f are have different meaning

 

Phoneme

consonantal

sonorant

Voiced

voiceless

alveolar

labiodental

stop

ricative

/t/

+

+

+

+

+

+

/f/

+

+

+

+

+

 

v   
The result of analyzing the distinctive
features between /t/ and /f/  are in voiced, alveolar, labiodental, and
voiceless. then the similarity features of /t/ and /f/ is consonantal,
sonorant, and voiceless.

 

4.                 
joy and boy

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

joy

boy

/j??/

/b??/

                                          

Ø    “joy” and” boy”  is minimal pairs, because only j and b are have different
meaning

Phoneme

Consonantal

Sonorant

voiced

bilabial

stop

/j/

+

+

/b/

+

+

+

+

+

 

v   
The result of analyzing the distinctive
features between /j/ and /b/  are in voiced, bilabial, and stop.
then the similarity features of /t/ and /f/ is consonantal and sonorant.

5.                 
say and day

word 1

Word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

Say

day

/se?/

/de?/ 

Ø    “say” and “day” is
minimal pairs, because only s and d
are have different meaning

Phoneme

Consonantal

sonorant

voiced

voiceless

alveolar

Fricative

Stop

/s/

+

+

+

+

+

/d/

+

+

+

+

+

 

Ø   
The result of analyzing the
distinctive features between /s/ and /d/ 
are in voiced,voiceless,
fricative and stop. then the similarity features of /s/ and /d/ is consonantal
and sonorant.

6.                 
him and his

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

Him

his

/h?m/

/h?s/

Ø    “him” and” his” is
minimal pairs, because only m and s
are have different meaning

Phoneme

Consonantal

Sonorant

voiced

voiceless

bilabial

alveolar

fricative

/m/

+

+

+

/s/

+

+

+

+

+

v   
The result of analyzing the
distinctive features between /m/ and /s/ 
are in sonorant, voiced, voiceless, bilabial, alveolar, and fricative. then
the similarity features of /m/ and /s/ is consonantal.

7.                 
live and like

word 1

word 2

IPA 1

IPA 2

Live

like

/la?v/

/la?k/

Ø    “live” and “like” is
minimal pairs, because only v
and k are have different
meaning

Phoneme

Consonantal

Sonorant

Voiced

voiceless

Velar

labiodental

fricative

stop

Dorsal

/v/

+

+

+

+

+

/k/

+

+

+

+

+

+

v   
The result of analyzing the
distinctive features between /v/ and /k/ 
are in voiced, voiceless,
velar, labiodental, fricative, stop, and dorsal. then the similarity
features of /v/ and /k/ is consonantal and sonorant.

 

From this analysis on the table
there is an equation between theory and author analysis. on theory and analysis
mentioned three distinct phoneme types initial word, middle word and final
word. This type includes the minimal pair type because of
different meanings. in the analysis of poetry there are seven minimal pairs.

Example from analysis   :

initial words: till – will, took – look, tree – free, joy –
boy, say – day

middle words: live – like

final words: him – his

 

II.               
CONCLUSION

The purpose of this analysis is to
analyze the subject of poetry reading “The Little Black Boy” through
video using minimal English pair analysis.

William Blake is a crazy person. he
is a poet-maker and an English painter. William Blake’s “The Little Black
Boy” Poem tells of a small child who is searching for his true self and
feels unjust because it is always differentiated by white people.

Phonology is a language that studies
the sound of language by human speech. The minimal pair is a pair of words or
sounds that distinguish the meaning of a language. eg the distinguishing
phoneme kill and dill are / k / and / d / this includes the phoneme because of
the contrasting sound. this minimal pair has three differentiating phonemes:
initial words, middle words, and finals word and there is some place of
articulation. in the discussion, the process of word analysis or minimum
pairing has been described based on word pairs or consonant sounds and vowels
of poetry, then made transcription of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).

The benefits of this analysis are to
find word variations of the minimal pair and language sounds that distinguish
meaning.

 

 

 

REFERENCE

Brown, A. (1988). Functional load and the teaching of
pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 22(4), 593–606.
https://doi.org/10.2307/3587258

Roach, P. (1984).
Biblioteczka – S?owniczek. RELC Journal, 15(1), 117–118.
https://doi.org/10.1177/003368828401500113