Diploma each unit in the block diagram as

Diploma in
Aerospace Engineering
Aircraft Electronics &
Digital Systems 



Class:  TE01

Matric No: 1601392B

Marks:                                                   /100



A)   Individual Report (to
be in Microsoft word format) to include:

The purpose of an Electronic Flight
Instrument System (EFIS) in an aircraft.   
                                                                                                                  3 marks

purpose of an EFIS is to provide flight and systems information to the flight
crew. It is a flight deck instrument display system that displays flight
information and relevant data electronically rather than electromechanically.

EFIS displays data using cathode ray tube (CRT), however nowadays
liquid-crystal display (LCD) screens has replace conventional CRT flight instruments.

typical EFIS has a Primary Flight Display (Electronic Attitude Direction
Indicator and an Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (Navigation
Display). Some design has the two-displays merged into one.



Show and label clearly the block diagram
of an EFIS.                          5 marks 


complete EFIS in an aircraft has a left (Captain) and a right (Co-Pilot)
system, each system composed of two display unit an Electronic Attitude
Direction Indicator (EADI) and an Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator
(EHSI), a control panel, a symbol generator and a remote light sensor. A Third
(center) symbol generator is also incorporated so that signals driven from this
generator may be switched to either the left or right display units in the
event of failure of their corresponding generator.


Describe the operation and function of
each unit in the block diagram as shown in (ii).                                                                                              10

·      Control
Panel: Enable each pilot to control formatting on their respective EADI and
EHSI and to select the source of navigation, attitude, and heading information.


·      EADI
(Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator): A multifunction display flight
instrument that shows pitch and roll attitude indications along with the flight
director commands, localizer and glide slope indications, selected airspeed,
ground speed, automatic flight control system and auto throttle modes, and
radio altitude and decision height, working hand in hand with EHSI.


·      EHSI (Electronic
Horizontal Situation Indicator): An electronic flight instrument that display
navigation information’s include magnetic tack, aircraft bearings, ground
speed, distance to go, VHF
omnidirectional range (VOR) course, wind speed and aircraft headings,
Instrument Landing System (ILS) display, and a visual display of the flight
plan. Working hand in hand with EADI.


Remote Light Sensor: Photodiode device,
it responds to the flight deck ambient lighting condition and automatically
adjusts the brightness of the display to a suitable level, reducing the strains
on the pilots’ vision.


·      Symbol
Generator: It receives input data and format selection from the pilot, and
signals from sensors. Produces analog discrete and digital signal interfaces to
the aircraft display units and control panel. Furthermore, it performs symbol
generation system monitoring, power control and main control function of the







Show the location and placement of the EFIS
display units, control panel, warning and caution lights of a commercial
aircraft in the cockpit. 10 marks



Show and discuss the data displayed on
the primary flight information (PFD) and navigation information (ND) display
unit.                        20 marks



·      Primary
Flight Information (PFD)

The Primary Flight Display (PFD) is an
instrument that display information essential to the pilot to determine basic
flight parameter such as altitude attitude, airspeed, rate of climb and heading,
furthermore it also provide information about the Autopilot and Auto-thrust system
and its modes.

The PFD evolved from a basic attitude
indicated on number of individual electro-mechanical instruments, to CRT to an
Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI).

Furthermore, depending on the phase of
flight and pilot selection, the flight director can provide suitable lateral
guidance to maintain the selected path, headings or approach, vertical climb
and descents, reducing the workload of pilot while in manual flight and help
facilitates flight monitoring with the autopilot system engaged with all
essential information displayed on a single instrument. 


Information displayed on the PFD

Airspeed Indications
Indicated Airspeed
Target Airspeed
Mach Number
Managed Descent Speed Range
Takeoff V Speeds
Decision speed (V1)
Takeoff safety speed (V2)

Minimum Flap Retraction Speed
Minimum Slat Retraction Speed
Approach Target speed or VAPP Target
Maximum Flap Extension Speed
Green Dot Speed
Minimum Airspeed Limits
Maximum Airspeed Limits

Heading Indications
Heading Reference Line
Selected Heading or Track Index
Actual Track Symbol
ILS Inbound Course
Selected Heading

Altitude Indications
Altitude Indication
Target and Selected Altitude
Barometric Altimeter Reference
Vertical Deviation
Landing Elevation and Ground Reference
Vertical Speed
TCAS Commands
TCAS Message

Indications on the Ground
Sidestick Order Indication
Ground Roll Guidance Command Bar (Yaw
Max Sidestick Deflection

Approach Guidance
PFD ILS Indications
ILS Information
Localizer and Glide Slope Deviation
Marker Beacons
·     ILS Message
·     RNAV Vertical Deviation Scale Index

Some key Information displayed on the
PFD includes:

1. Flight Mode
Display flight mode annunications and message

Defined by the lower end of a red and blaxk strip along the
speed scale. Represents the lowest of vmc (or MMC), VFE or VLE if the landing
gear is extended. Conmputed by the FACs
3. Overspeed Protection Symbol
Indicated n green the speed (Vmo + 6 knots / Mmo + 0.01) at
which overspeed protection activates
4. Green Dot Speed
Appear while flying in the clean configuration, represents
the best lift-to-drag, as computed by the FACs
5. Actural Airspeed Reference
Indicates the actual airspeed where the scale value moves
in front of the line, airspeed indication starts from 30 knots
6. Speed Trend Arrow
Startinbg from the airspeed reference line, points to the
speed value which will be attained in 10 seconds if the acceleration remains
constant. Appears only when speed difference is greater than two knots. Disappears
when speed difference is less than one knot or if FACs fails
7. Speed Indicators
F: minimum flap retraction speed- appears in green next to the minimum
speed for selecting postition 1 when the FLAPS selector is in position 3 or
2. Computed by the FACS
S: minium slat retraction speed-appears in green nexxt to the minimum
speed for selecting postion 0 when the flaps selector is in position 1. Computed
by the FACs
1: decision speed (v1) – appears in blue nect to the speed entered by
the screw through the MCDU,. When out of indication range, appears on upper
part of scale, disappeas after lift-off
8. Target Airspeed Pointer
Points Points to the target airspeed value or the airspeed
corresponding to the target Mach number. The pointer is magenta when the
target airspeed is the value computed by the FMGC in managed speed mode. The
pointer is blue when the target airspeed is manually entered on the FMGC or
manually entered on the FCU. When the target airspeed is out of the speed
tape range, the target speed value is displayed above or below the speed tape
in numeric form
9. Alpha Protection Speed
Represents the speed corresponding to the angle of attack
at which alpha protection activates, as computed in pitch normal law by the FACs.
10. Mach Number
Displays when number is greater than (.5).
11. ILS Information
The following appears when an ILS frequency and course have
been selected in the MCDU and when the ILS switch on the EFIS control panel
is pushed:
ILS identification as decoded from the ILS receiver.
ILS frequency.
DME distance if a DME is co-located.


Roll Index
Points to angle of bank on roll
Side Slip Index / Beta Target
Indicates lateral acceleration
on the ground and side slip in flight as provided by ADIRS. Reaches stop at
Roll Scale
Provides graduations at 0, 10,
20, 30 and 45 degrees of bank.
Pitch Scale
Provides graduations between
80° nose up and 80° nose down with 2.5° increments between 10° nose down and
30° nose up.
Fixed Airplane Symbol
Glide Slope Deviation Index and Localizer Index
Appear when glide slope and
localizer signals are valid if deviation scales are displayed.
Actual Track Diamond
Indicates the actual track on
the heading scale in green.
ILS Course Pointer
Appears when an ILS frequency
and course have been selected and when ILS switch is pushed.
Selected Heading or Track Index
Points to the selected heading
or track on the heading scale.
21.  Bank Angle Limit Indicator
Indicates bank angle limitation
in green at ±67° on roll scale. Replaced by amber “X” with loss of
normal law.

Target Airspeed Pointer
Points to the target airspeed
value or the airspeed corresponding to the target Mach number. The pointer is
magenta when the target airspeed is the value computed by the FMGC in managed
speed mode. The pointer is blue when the target airspeed is manually entered
on the FMGC or manually entered on the FCU. When the target airspeed is out
of the speed tape range, the target speed value is displayed above or below
the speed tape in numeric form.
Altitude Indication
Displays altitude in green on a
white moving scale. “NEG” appears in window to indicate negative
altitude. Window changes from yellow to amber if the airplane deviates from
the selected altitude or flight level. Numerical value changes from green to
amber when the airplane flies below any MDA entered in the MCDU.
Barometric Reference Indication
Indicates that either STD or
QNH has been selected as barometric reference.
Vertical Speed Scale
Displays white on grey.
Graduated each 500 feet per minute.
Analog Vertical Speed Pointer
Displays green. If vertical
speed exceeds 2000 feet per minute, pointer positions to end of scale. Speed
indicators becoming amber if any of the following occur:
-Vertical speed exceeds 6000
-Vertical speed exceeds 2000
fpm descent and radio altitude is between 2500 and 1000 feet.
-Vertical exceeds 1200 fpm
descent and radio altitude is less than 1000 feet.
Digital Vertical Speed Indication
Displays green. Disappears when
vertical speed is less than 200 feet per minute. Window surrounding
indication becomes amber to indicate inertial data has been replaced by
barometric information.



Given the plethora of information, some
key tactical flight information displayed on the PFD are as follows:

1.  Artificial
Horizon: Indicating the pitch and roll of the aircraft.

2.  Attitude
Display Area: Indicating the aircraft’s attitude relative to an artificial

3.  Altitude
Tape: Indicating the current altitude in the center (as illustrated 34900ft)

4.  Speed
Tape: Indicating the current speed in knots (as illustrated 275knots).

5.  Vertical
Speed Display: Indicating the rate of altitude change in feet per minute.

6.  Mach
Number: Indicating the current speed in Mach.

7.  Lateral
Direction Display: Indicating the yaw attitude of the aircraft.

In the event of a failure of any of the
system that affects the PFD, a failure/ fault flag and messages will appear on
the PFD as shown in the figure below, prompting the pilot to take further


·      Navigation
Information (ND)

Navigation Information (ND) replacing conventional Horizontal Situation
Indicator (HSI) provides information such as the lateral situation, lateral
flight plans as well as additional markers such as Non-Directional Beacon
(NDBs), VHF omnidirectional range (VORs) and airports. There are five modes
available for display:

all necessary information in rose mode

Landing System(ILS)
ILS approach and landing, indicating the ILS course and localizer deviation.

omnidirectional range (VOR)
 For VOR/ADF usage. Points to the selected
VOR course

to the route visualization, only the selected route is displayed with all the
waypoints in flight plan

the NAV mode, the only difference is the Arc representation. Limited to
forward 90 degrees sector





common to all modes include:

Symbol/Cross Track Error
Aircraft Symbol indicates the current position and appears in the center of
the ND in the ROSE mode, at the bottom of the display in the ARC mode, and
along the route at the appropriate location in the PLAN mode. The Cross-Track
Error, the lateral deviation left or right of the active flight plan course,
will be displayed next to the aircraft symbol in nautical miles.

·      The
yellow line displays the aircrafts magnetic heading on the moving white compass
·      Small
white triangles are fixed at 45°
intervals on the compass rose.
·      ‘TRU’
appears at the top of the compass rose if the display has changed from
magnetic heading to true heading.
·      The
FCU selected heading appears as a blue triangle on the heading scale.
·      A
green diamond below the appropriate track identifies the actual aircraft

Ground Speed
True Airspeed
Wind Direction
and Speed
The ground speed and true airspeed are
displayed in the upper left-hand corner on the ND.
This information is furnished by the
The ground speed is operative on the
ground and can assist in monitoring taxi speed.
The wind direction and speed are
displayed below the GS and TAS.
The digital indication is based on
true north.
The wind arrow indicates the wind direction
based on magnetic north. The wind arrow will appear when the velocity is
greater than 2 knots.


The type of approach selected form the
MCDU database, if any, is indicated in the top center of the ND

upper right-hand corner of the ND will display navaid or waypoint information
depending on the ND mode selection.


Each ND has an independent chronometer
controlled by a CHRONO pb. The display will appear and begin timing when the
pb is pressed once. The indication is in minutes and seconds from 0 to 59′
59″ in hours and minutes from 1 H to 99 H 59′.
The elapsed time will stop when the
CHRONO pb is pressed a second time and the display will be removed when
CHRONO is pressed a third time

In the event of a failure of any of the
system that affects the ND, warning and messages will appear on the ND as shown
in the figure below, prompting the pilot to take further action.


List down the source of information
taken from internet, books, etc.2 marks