Abstract- after detection of vehicle and as soon

Abstract- The paper
is designed for street light with auto intensity control with the help of PWM
technique using solar power controlled by Raspberry Pi board. As sun is
renewable source of solar energy, awareness for solar energy is increasing, and
everyone is trying to use solar energy for their work. Photovoltaic panels (solar
panels) are used for charging batteries (solar cells) by converting the
sunlight into electricity. The intensity of street lights is required to be
kept high during traffic. As the traffic on the roads decreases in late nights,
the intensity of street light can be reduced. In High Intensity Discharge lamps
(HID) the intensity is not controllable because when reduction of voltage is
done then discharge path breaks. But in LED lights because of PWM technique the
intensity is controllable. A Raspberry Pi board is used to provide different
intensities at the different situations of traffic at night time using PWM
techniques, for energy saving. Intelligent street lighting system turns the
light ON and OFF depending on the vehicle or pedestrian movement.

 

Key words- LED Lamps, Raspberry
pi, Sensors, LDR, RFID card and Reader. 

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

                                                                                                                                                                      
I.           
Introduction

The Street lights are the major requirements in
today’s life for safety purposes, to reduce crime rate and avoiding accidents
during night. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and
expensive responsibilities of a city. It also encourages social inclusion by
providing an environment in which people feel they can walk in hours of
darkness. Despite that in today’s busy lifestyle no one bothers to switch
lights OFF/ON when not required. Inefficient lighting wastes significant
financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs
dramatically.

     At present,
street lamps are controlled manually in most of the cities. Generally street
lights are switched ON for whole night and, during the day, they are switched
OFF. But at night time there is no necessity of street lights when there is no traffic.
The proposed system in this paper implements smart street lighting system in
which block of street lights turns ON after detection of vehicle and as soon as
the vehicle moves ahead the trailing lights automatically switches OFF. Now-a-days,
the street lights are working on electricity. The electricity is generated by
renewable and nonrenewable sources. Nonrenewable sources are getting reduced
day by day. In proposed system instead of using nonrenewable sources, renewable
source such as sun is used to generate the energy to switch ON the street
lights.

    The paper presents an automatic street light
controller using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). By using this system manual
works are removed. The street lights are automatically switched ON when the
sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the
streetlight when ample amount of sunlight is available, it means LDR resistance
is inversely proportional to light falling on it. Whenever there is sufficient
light falling on the LDR, it exhibits high resistance and acts as an insulator
and in darkness the LDR behaves as low resistance path and allows the flow of
electricity.

When the light falls on the LDR it sends the commands
to the control circuit that it should be in the OFF state and the streetlight
turns OFF.

This proposed system provides a solution for energy
saving. This is achieved by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON
a street light ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights
gets dimmed automatically.

 

                                                                                                                                                             
II.           
RELATED WORKS

 

    Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical
cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public
authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for
economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial
resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy
efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs dramatically
(often by 25-60%). The main consideration in the present field technologies are
Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to
reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main
consideration forever as the sources of the power are getting diminished due to
various reasons. The busy lifestyle of humans has led to untimely switching of
street lights. As a result lot of power is being wasted. The advanced
development in embedded system has set a platform for designing energy
efficient systems. Electrical Power wastage can be reduced by using two light dependent
resistors as light sensing devices or light sensors to indicate day or night
time. A photoelectric sensor has been used to detect the movement of humans and
vehicles on the streets. The supply to the control unit and to light the street
light is being achieved by the implementation of solar panels.

    Overview of
the previous work done related to the vehicle movement using street light
detection by different authors is explained in the literature survey. The
strategic implementation of the different communication technologies and the
methodology used in system is discussed briefly.

    “The Smart Street Light System based on
Image Processing” 1 implemented by
Veena P C, Paulsy Tharakan, Hima Haridas, Ramya K, Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S
in 2016 consists of LED Lamps, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, LDR, OLFC. The Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing, is a hardware application
which  takes video as input and   detect movement of vehicles and human beings
to switch ON only a chunk of street lights ahead of it (vehicle & human),
and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy . The Object Level Frame
comparison methodology is used to detect the vehicles and humans. Sensors are
also included in this system to detect whether the temperature and gas are
exceeding in the particular area and send a SMS immediately to the
corresponding department via a GSM module. Raspberry Pi is used as the platform
as it enables the number of modules to be connected to it through the various
ports. A camera connected to the Raspberry Pi is the element through which
input image is taken. The LDR is used to measure the intensity of light. The
merits of this system are power reduction and this system is used to save
energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient 1.

    “An
Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM
Technology” 2 implemented by Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar, Prof. Manoj M. Dongre in 2015, consists of Atmega
microcontroller, GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, 
Sensors, Street Light. The system is designed such a way that lights
sensors (LDR), RTC and Presence sensor placed in all street lights circuit will
turn ON and OFF lamps automatically. When the lights are turn ON every light
pole having current sensor informs about fault to the centralized system by
using GSM module attached to circuit via Short Message Service (SMS). The
information through SMS is received at Base station with Raspberry Pi (a compute
module), analyzes the data and the status of street lamp is visualized with
help of Graphical User Interface (GUI). This makes the fault detection and
maintenance of system easy than the conventional system. System makes the most
efficient use of the energy received from the sun to power street lights. The
merits of this system are use of solar panels and this system is flexible
according to need of user and demerit of this system is that this system is
very expensive. Because of this the system is not useful in the rural areas
where there is low budget. The rural area lighting is the main application of
our project and this system does not applicable there 2.

    “Design and implementation of Traffic Flow
based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy” 3
implemented by M.Abhishek , Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar used, 8052
series microcontroller, LDR, Photoelectric Sensor, Street Lights in Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective
utilization of solar energy. In this system renewable source of energy i.e.,
solar power is used for street lighting. Apart from this, normal bulbs are
replaced in street lighting with LEDs due to which the power consumption in
reduced by 3 times. And also, IR sensors are used to detect the movement of
object to activate the lighting a few meters before the object is about to
reach the lighting area. Here, the IR sensors are deactivated after a timing
delay of 30seconds and similarly remaining sensors are activated and
deactivated after 30seconds. The process is controlled by 8052 series
microcontroller. The merits of this system are power reduction and this system
is used to save energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan.
Because of these two demerits this system is not much efficient. Because of no
backup plan we cannot relia on the system totally. Because of this we have to
search for other options 3. 

    “Internet of Things Based Intelligent
Street Lighting System for Smart City” 4 implemented by  Parkash, Prabu V, Dandu Rajendra in 2016.
This system is implemented with smart embedded system which controls the street
lights based on detection of vehicles or any other obstacles on the street
.Whenever the obstacle is detected on the street within the specified time the
light will get automatically ON/OFF according to the obstacle detection and the
same information can be accessed through internet. The system architecture of
the intelligent street light system consists of IR sensors, LDR, PIC16F877A
microcontroller, Relay, UART and Wi-Fi Module. LDRs are light dependent devices
whose resistance decreases when light falls on them and increases in the dark.
When a light dependent resistor is kept in dark, its resistance is very high.
The vehicle which passes by the street light is detected by IR sensor (IR
transmitter and IR receiver couple). Relays are used as a switch to switch
on/off the street light bulb. A UART (Universal Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter) is the microchip with programming that controls a
computer’s interface to its attached street light system. The real time
information of the street light (ON/OFF Status) can be accessed from anytime,
anywhere through internet.  The merit of
this system is reduction of manpower, automatic switching of street lights,
reduction in CO?
emission, Reduction of light pollution, wireless communication, energy saving
and demerits are initial cost and maintenance is high. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient. And it is not used in such
areas where there is less budget to implement smart street lighting project
4.

   “Smart street lighting system based on
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” 5 
implemented by Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni
in 2014 describe about and input sensing devices. In this paper, an approach
for controlling Street Lighting system using millennium 3 PLC is proposed. The
proposed controller gives fast, reliable, and power efficient street lamp
switching based on seasonal variations. The simulated results are also verified
experimentally by using a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which senses the
light. LDR is used as the replacement for the seasonal variation. This paper
confirms that the proposed PLC based street lighting control system has great
potential to revolutionize street lighting which in turn saves large amount of
power.But PLC’s are used for automation of industrial electro-mechanical
processes which does not help in our proposed system 5.

 

III.SYSTEM MODEL AND COMPONENTS

 

    This
proposed system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by
sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights
ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing light gets dimmed
automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on
the highway, then intensity of light becomes low.

    This system is
developed using Raspberry Pi along with various sensors sensing the vehicle.
LDR is used to automatically switch ON the street lights when the sunlight goes
below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the streetlight when some
amount of sunlight is available. LDR is used to identify the difference between
day and night. This system should have to turn ON at night time and remains OFF
at day time and this is achieved with the help of LDR. To sense the vehicle IR
sensors are used. Pair of IR transmitter and receiver situated on both sides of
the road detects vehicles and give command to control unit to turn ON/OFF block
of street light.  When vehicle or any
other object is sensed by IR sensor, then the street lights will glow. And if
vehicle or any other object is not detected by IR sensor, then the street
lights will remain in OFF state. The control unit used here is Raspberry Pi.

    The energy
supply required for control unit and street lights is given from the renewable
source, Sun. The solar energy is taken with help of solar panel and stored in a
battery. The energy stored in battery is in the form of AC but Raspberry Pi
work on DC. So ADC operation is required in proposed system. Raspberry Pi
cannot drive LEDs directly, so MOSFET drive is required to drive LED.

    The main
power supply is used as a backup plan when solar panels are not working
properly or when there is insufficient solar energy. To drive Raspberry Pi +5V
DC supply is required.  The supply from
mains is 230V, 50Hz. To convert this into +5V DC supply transformer, rectifier,
filter are used.

    RFID card on
the car and RFID reader on the pole is placed. With help of RFID reader whole
information of car can ban be displayed on LCD. The information of car is its
unique plate no. and information of car owner. To avoid collision ultrasonic
sensor is used.  In rainy season
sometimes there may be condition that the driver may not see beyond some limit.
So in such situation the ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to get the
information about the vehicles or obstacles ahead of him. There may be some
another situations too, so to drive safely in such tricky condition is very
difficult job. In such cases ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to drive
safely.

     Sometimes
when driver feels sleepy there is a chance of accident. In proposed system when driver
lose his grip from steering, then vibrations are given to driver’s chair.
Because of this chances of accident reduces to some extent.

 

 

 

Fig 1: Block Diagram of Vehicle Movement
using Street Light Detection

IV.IMPLIMENTATION

 

Flow of the implemented system is explained with
the help of following flowcharts. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart for checking day
and night condition using LDR. Flowchart for vehicle detection is shown in Fig
3.

     First
initialize all the devices. After the initialization is done, check day and
night condition using LDR. As we know the LDR is Light Dependent Resistor, it
works on the internal resistance. At day time internal resistance is high and
at night time internal resistance is low. When resistance is low, make street
lighting system ON. When resistance is high make street lighting system OFF. 

   After
detection of vehicle by IR sensor, IR sensor will send signal to Raspberry pi
to turn ON street light. When the vehicle is not detected by IR sensor, the
street light will remains OFF.

 

 

Fig 2: Flowchart for checking day and night
condition using LDR

 

 

 

Fig 3: Flowchart for vehicle detection

 

 

VI. ANALYSIS

 

In table 1, it shows an analysis and comparison about
current systems.

 

Table 1: Analysis of recently proposed
system

 

Title of Paper

 Components Used

 Merits

 Demerits

 Smart Street
Light System based on Image Processing

  LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, sensors, LDR,
OLFC .

 Power reduction , Used to save energy

 High initial cost ,No backup plan.

 An Intelligent
System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM Technology

 At mega , GSM, LED,  Raspberry Pi,  Sensors, Street Light.

 Use of solar panels, Flexible according to
need of user.

 Expensive.

 Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with
effective utilization of solar energy

 Microcontroller ,LDR, Photoelectric sensor.

 Automatic ON/OFF mechanism of street
lights.

Because of one microcontroller the
controllability and operation of street lighting is difficult.

 Internet
of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City

 PIC Microcontroller, IR Sensor, Current
Sensor, LDR, Intel Galileo Gen2.

 Reduction of manpower.

 Initial cost and maintenance is high .

 

 

VII. RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION

 

In proposed system IR sensor will detect the movement
of vehicle. When vehicle is detected by IR sensor, it will inform to control
unit i.e. Raspberry Pi about the presence of vehicle. Then Raspberry Pi will
control the switching operation of street light. To turn ON the system we have
to use LDR. LDR will check intensity of light. According to light intensity (if
it is low, then system will turn ON and if intensity is high system remains
OFF). The energy provided to whole system is solar energy with the help of
solar panels and this energy is stored in batteries. Whenever there is absence
of solar energy or failure of solar supply to the system, the main switch will give energy to whole system. To know
about the information of car, RFID card and RFID reader is used and the
information is displayed on LCD. To avoid collision ultrasonic sensor is used.  When driver feels sleepy , to alert him and to
avoid accident vibrations are provided to driver’s chair.

   

 

Fig 4: Expected result

 

    As shown in
above Fig 4, the street lights should glow after detecting vehicle or other
object.

 

VIII.
CONCLUSION

The project has been studied and designed using
raspberry pi. This work includes the energy saving system. The main benefit of
the present system is power saving. This initiative will help the government to
save this energy and meet the domestic and industrial needs. In addition to
energy consumption, another advantage it provides less maintenance cost. This
project is cost effective, practical, and the safest way to save energy. It
clearly tackles the two problems that world is facing today, saving of energy
and also disposal of incandescent lamps, very efficiently. According to
statistical data we can save more electrical energy that is now consumed by the
highways. We have implemented a prototype of this system. The proposed system
is especially appropriate for street lighting in remote urban and rural areas
where the traffic is low at times. Independence of the power network permits to
implement it in remote areas where the classical systems are prohibitively
expensive. The system is versatile, extendable and totally adjustable to user
need.

 

REFERENCES

 

1    
Veena
P C, Paulsy Tharakan , Hima Haridas, Ramya K , Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S,”Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing,” 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing
Technologies ICCPCT

 

2    
Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar , Prof. Manoj M. Dongre, “An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of
Street Light using GSM Technology,” 2015 International Conference on Information Processing (ICIP)
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology.
Dec 16-19,2015

 

3     M.Abhishek ,
Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar,”Design and implementation of
Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of
solar energy,” International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance
Technology, IJSEAT, Vol 3, Issue 9 ISSN 2321-6905 September-2015

 

4     Parkash, Prabu
V, Dandu Rajendra ,”Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting
System for Smart City,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol.
5, Issue 5, May 2016

 

5     Dr. D.V.Pushpa
Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni, “PLC
based Smart S Street Lighting
Control”, I.J.Intelligent System and Applications, 2014, 01, 64-72.

 

6     Raspberry Pi
Foundation, UK registered charity 1129409

 

7    
Cellan
Jones, Rory (5thMay 2011), Peter (3rdJune 2011), Bush, Steve (25thMay 2011), “Dongle computer solve the programming on a
TV”

 

8    
Akula
Rahul, K.Haripriya, E.Sneha, “Smart
Energy Management System Based on Zigbee
Technology”, 11thMarch 2015.